Closely mimics
physiologic insulin1,2
Lungs are well-suited for
ultra-rapid delivery1,2
AFREZZA is absorbed through the lungs without having to change molecular structure, pass through SC tissue, or undergo first-pass metabolism, thereby facilitating ultra-rapid absorption (<1 minute) and ultra-rapid onset1,3,4
When inhaled, these microparticles are appropriately sized to reach and deposit in the deep lung5
Anatomical illustration of man inhaling AFREZZA and the movement of microparticles through the lungs, where insulin is released, rapidly reaching systemic circulation. Anatomical illustration of man inhaling AFREZZA and the movement of microparticles through the lungs, where insulin is released, rapidly reaching systemic circulation.
The pH in the lungs will cause dissolution of the microspheres, releasing insulin which rapidly reaches systemic circulation and attains maximum concentration within 15 minutes6
More rapid onset and shorter duration of action compared with SC RAIs1,7
Comparative chart showing how pulmonary delivery is closer to physiological insulin than subcutaneous delivery in terms of onset and duration of action.
*Data shown are for the 12-unit doses. The 48-unit doses have a time to peak effect of 55 minutes and time for effect to return to baseline of 270 minutes.8
Insulin secretion data obtained from a study in healthy subjects (n=10) to estimate insulin sensitivity based on a MGTT.4,10,11 Delivery data obtained from the prescribing information for inhaled and SC insulin therapies4,10,11 and a quantitative comparison of GIR profiles for AFREZZA and lispro.3
  • AFREZZA can be taken at the start of a meal since it mimics physiologic insulin: no pre-bolus required4
Insulin in healthy adults: Time to peak concentration ~45 minutes8
Line graph showing that in healthy adults, physiologic insulin reaches peak concentration in about 45 minutes.
AFREZZA: Time to peak effect ~45 minutes3,4,9
Line graph showing that time to peak effect with AFREZZA is about 45 minutes and with subcutaneous RAIs, about 90 minutes.
Data from an open-label, randomized, controlled, cross-over study that compared the area under the glucose infusion rate versus time curve (GIR AUC) of AFREZZA (12 units) with SC RAI lispro in 30 patients with T1D. Each volunteer received 3 different doses of each treatment over a series of 6 euglycemic clamps.3,9 The time course of insulin action may vary considerably in different individuals or within the same individual.

AUC=area under curve; GIR=glucose infusion rate; MGTT=mean glucose tolerance test; PK=pharmacokinetics; PD=pharmacodynamics; RAI=rapid-acting insulin; SC RAI=subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin; T1D=type 1 diabetes.

References: 1. Heinemann L, Baughman R, Boss A, Hompesch M. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a novel inhaled insulin. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2017;11(1):148-156. 2. Heinemann L, Parkin CG. Rethinking the viability and utility of inhaled insulin in clinical practice. J Diabetes Res. 2018;:4568903. 3. Data on file. MannKind Corporation. 4. Afrezza (insulin human) Inhalation Powder Prescribing Information. MannKind Corporation. 5. Leone-Bay A, Baughman R, Smutney C, Kocinsky J. Innovation in drug delivery by inhalation. OnDrugDelivery Magazine. 2010;4-8. 6. Sarala N, Bengalorkar G, Bhuvana K. Technosphere: new drug delivery system for inhaled insulin. Fut Prescriber. 2012;13:14-16. 7. Rave K, Heise T, Heinemann L, Boss AH. Inhaled Technosphere insulin in comparison to subcutaneous regular human insulin: time action profile and variability in subjects with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2(2):205-212. 8. Caumo A, Bergman RN, Cobelli C. Insulin sensitivity from meal tolerance tests in normal subjects: a minimal model index. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(11):4396-4402 9. Grant M, Heise T, Baughman R. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of inhaled Technosphere insulin and subcutaneous insulin lispro in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2022;61(3):413-422. 10. Fiasp (insulin aspart injection) Prescribing Information. Novo Nordisk. 11. Lyumjev (insulin lispro-aabc injection) Prescribing Information. Eli Lilly and Company.

© MannKind Corporation June, 2024. US-AFR-2502

Indications and Usage

Afrezza® (insulin human) Inhalation Powder is a rapid acting inhaled human insulin indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with diabetes mellitus.

Limitations of Use: Not recommended for the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis, not recommended in patients who smoke or have recently stopped smoking.

Important Safety Information for Afrezza® (insulin human) Inhalation Powder

WARNING: RISK OF ACUTE BRONCHOSPASM IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE. Acute bronchospasm has been observed in patients with asthma and COPD using AFREZZA. AFREZZA is contraindicated in patients with chronic lung disease such as asthma or COPD. Before initiating AFREZZA, perform a detailed medical history, physical examination, and spirometry (FEV1) to identify potential lung disease in all patients.